Wintering bees at will: under snow, without insulation
An important and responsible period in beekeeping ispreservation of their pets in the "fighting composition" in the cold season. It is extremely necessary to choose the right way to inhabit bees at this time, since there are many interesting and economical options now.
What is bee wintering
The successful stay of these heat-loving insects incold, one can say, is one of the most difficult tasks in beekeeping, because imagine - for a long time (from 2 to 5 months, depending on the climatic features of the region) pets are in the least mobile state than ever.
At the same time, it is necessary to take care not only of their comfortable stay, but also of stocks, which should be sufficient for the winter period. There are several types of stay of bees in the cold season:
- wintering bees at will (we'll talk about this in more detail in this article);
- the wintering of bees in a pondyard (this can be a specially created winter hut, or the usual basement of a private house).
Throughout the cold pore is importantto monitor the condition of bees - this is enough to do once a month, listening to their movements inside, using a specially created tube. With the help of noise, you can identify a number of problems: if the sound is strong enough, it indicates a deterioration in the health of the inhabitants, which is caused by several factors.
One of the main difficulties in bee hibernationis the inconsistency of temperatures. The fact is that older insects and those that were bred by the species of the northern regions, tolerate the cold better than younger and southerners. Therefore it is desirable to have bees of the same breed.
An important problem is also the fact thatthe organism of these insects is arranged in such a way: from excess moisture or, on the contrary, from over-dried air, bees can begin to have health problems, since they need to stay constantly and year-round in the closest possible to natural conditions. This factor is always an alternative - the hibernation of bees in the wild without insulation is similar in nature to the natural habitat of insects.
Do not forget about the accumulation in the intestinesWaste that remains from the latest processing of honey. Unfortunately, the body of bees is arranged so that they can defecate only during the spring flight, so sometimes such phenomena cause mortality.
What is necessary for successful wintering
First, you need to decide howcarry the cold insects - in the wild or still in the omshanika. It depends on the financial capabilities of the beekeeper, and on the breed of insects. Wintering bees at will precludes any painstaking preparation of the room, in contrast to the second option, so if a winter hunter is chosen as the place, it should be carefully adjusted.
But with any chosen method it is extremely necessarypay special attention to a sufficient supply of feed. They should not be small, so that insects do not starve, but you can not overfeed them, leaving excessive reserves.
Particular attention should be paid to the composition of the bee family - among them there must be young from the latest brood, as well as the reproductive uterus.
And most importantly - before wintering it is necessary to carry out preventive work in accordance with sanitary norms. In the cold period, bees should not be bothered by pests that carry various infections.
Wintering of bees without a uterus
It is known that bezmatalknye families are doomed todeath, since bees do not have the possibility of further fertilization. But do not forget that some families with their presence are also exposed to great danger, as certain individuals are simply incapable of procreation.
What to do if wintering bees at riskto remain without a uterus in the family? Do not panic - you can fix everything in the fall. To do this, you need to pay attention to the state of the family - if it is obese, then it should be knocked out, well, if it leak - it is better to leave this family for wax. Then it is necessary to select the rejected from the available ones, and take out the uterus from there, which should be moved to the bezmatovochnoe family.
But this is not enough for a successful wintering. To ensure that the bee will survive in a foreign brood, it is necessary to add a few old bees from other hives for reproduction.
But if an ice-free family was discovereda week before wintering, it is better not to take risks and not engage in an amendment - all the same in this business and at such times the success is too small. Because there are no guarantees that the young, newly populated womb will not lose in mating with the drones. Therefore, under these circumstances, one can only hope for success.
What is the wintering of bees at will
Free wintering is good because the first flight aroundbees begin a month earlier than those who winter in basements and oshshniki. Therefore, by the time when families are released from premises with the first sunny spring days, insects in free conditions have up to four brood frames already.
With free living throughout thecold period should pay special attention to the state of the hives, because their walls have the property of being ripe, which favors the reproduction of mold directly in honeycombs.
Therefore, it is advisable to wrap them in the fallthick black paper, and cover the top with dry foliage - this will help the winter home to keep warm and dry for as long as possible. You can also additionally insulate them with either an industrial film or a roofing felt.
Do not forget that in cold times bees may lack ventilation, so you should listen to them and, if necessary, carefully add fresh air.
Winter under snow
Another way to save the family in the coldthe period is the wintering of bees at will under the snow. This method includes the above, but the beehives are covered with snow, without any exceptions and exceptions. Snow breaks through the spring or in the thaw period, when crusts form on top. In this case, every hive before the cold must be wrapped with some material that can isolate the flow of heat.
This kind of wintering is good because the bees are ready forthe first flyby already with the early spring melting, but it also has its drawbacks. For example, if the winter is snowless, the hives remain without reliable protection, which worsens their condition. To do this, it is recommended to put non-thick wooden planks to the dwelling, which act as an additional protection against frost. In general, they can be left and after the snow fell, and until the spring comes, in this case, the wooden pieces play the role of additional protection of the bees from birds.
Wintering bees at will in Siberia
It is known that in cold regions, for example, inSiberia, bee colonies are stronger, so they are able to endure frosts in the open air. Therefore, often in such places these insects winter in freedom.
As already mentioned above, the most important thing is to protecthives from drafts, since the wintering of bees at will in Western Siberia is first and foremost a serious test for insects, because the winds in these places in the cold period are strong and very cold.
Therefore, it is extremely important to protect homes fromdestructive external factors, but not only from weather conditions, but also from rodents and birds. Do not forget that the hives of southern insect breeds should be warmer than the Central Russian ones, since they are less resistant to Siberian colds. Since in this region snow is more than enough for a successful wintering, it is recommended to cast them qualitatively from the very beginning of winter and no longer to bother.
Cold season in the Moscow region
In this region there is quite a crudeclimate in the cold season, despite a sufficient average amount of snow (about half a meter, sometimes more). Therefore, the wintering of bees at will in the Moscow region should begin with quality preparation and warming of the hives.
In order that the inside does not form molddue to the peculiarities of the local climate, it is necessary to artificially increase the space under the frame, due to which a special pillow is formed from the air, which adds dryness and heat to the winter dwelling.
In addition, to further preserve the heat of the family it is desirable to be placed tightly to each other.
However, the undoubted advantage of the climate inMoscow region is that here the temperature fluctuates in a small amplitude during the day, so there are no special differences, and the bees carry wintering at will calmly.
Wintering in Bashkortostan
Due to the rather mild climate in these places,Wintering bees at will in Bashkiria is proceeding calmly. Moreover, the hives do not need special insulation, as, for example, in the territory of Siberia. And the climate here is less humid than in the Moscow region in the nearby territories.
For the local temperate continental climate, it is sufficient to adhere to those tips that have been described above regarding the free time of bees in the cold season.