Moniliasis, or monilial burn of fruit trees: signs, photos. How to deal with moniliasis
Every gardener puts in his lot a lotstrength and time, and in return wants to get a good harvest. For this, it is not enough to make fertilizing, watering and pruning plants. It is very important to protect the garden from pests, as well as from various diseases, which are becoming more and more. Viral and fungal, they spread at the speed of light and lead to complete destruction of the crop, and sometimes the trees themselves.
Today, more and more summer residents are faced with the fact thatspring greens on the trees of stone stones are covered with brown spots. Many mistakenly believe that it was a night frost, or blame themselves for improper treatment with an insecticide. In fact, it is the activity of a harmful fungus. This disease is called a monilial burn. Its prevalence in Russia today has reached an incredible scale, so every summer resident should provide such a problem.
How to recognize the enemy in person
This disease appeared not yesterday. If you are engaged in a dacha for a long time, then, most likely, you know what a monial burn is. Just in everyday life it's called differently. This is a common gray rot. Various subspecies settle on all fruit trees. In this case, stone fruits are the favorite in this fungus and suffer much more.
A monilial burn is very common inregions with a temperate climate. In Russia this is the European part and the north-west, the Far East, the Caucasus and the Urals, Siberia. That is, it turns out that most of the country suffers. Cherry orchards of Ukraine and Belarus are infected. The problem becomes almost ubiquitous, and regular processing does not help. Relatively cool weather and rains are excellent conditions for the development of gray rot. At high humidity, the optimum temperature is 15-20 degrees. Today, the climate is changing everywhere, and a prolonged spring with precipitation leads to the fact that the monilial burn appears even in regions where it was not previously met.
How does the infection occur?
Processing should be done before the startflowering plants. It is from the moment of the buds' opening that the conidia of the fungus penetrate through the pistil into the flower. Here he gets all the conditions necessary for life and development. The mycelium is able to hit and shoot wood. As a result, the grower observes a rapidly growing moniliial burn (cherries, for example). Instead of pouring berries, you get withered young twigs. Spores of the fungus are carried by the wind for a considerable distance, so if there are no diseased trees on the neighboring sites, this does not mean that there is nothing to worry about. They can be brought and insects.
As we have already said, leaves and shoots acquirebrown color. Following them, the same fate awaits and formed ovaries. If the affected parts of plants are not removed in time, they will themselves become a source of controversy. A monilial stone stone burn is a disease that must be tackled with all seriousness. Even unfavorable conditions can not stop the process of vital activity of the fungus. In hot weather, his activity slows down, but at the first opportunity he will again manifest himself in all "glory." Spores of the fungus are extremely tenacious.
Over the summer period, he can give severalgenerations of disputes and capture entire gardens. Cold spores survive on branches, dried leaves and unripe berries, which mummified and remained hanging on a tree. And with the advent of the warm season, the cycle of development is repeated with even greater speed.
In the risk zone
A beginning gardener is sometimes surprised thatOnly adult, fruit-bearing plantings are affected. At the same time young trees tolerate the neighborhood with them, without showing any signs of disease. There is no miracle here. Simply the only place through which the fungus is introduced into the bast plant tissues is an open flower. Therefore, the seedlings are 100% protected.
At the same time, precipitation is vitally important for thefall during the flowering period. They are needed by the tree itself, since moderate heat and a sufficient amount of moisture contribute to the appearance and ripening of the fruit. But the same rains create conditions for the development of the fungus and reduce the resistance of the plant. Therefore, a warm and rainy spring is a reason to be on the alert and regularly check your garden. Even if you are not sure that the branch dries up due to fungal damage, it is always better to cut it and burn it.
The spread is also promoted by insects thatparasitize on flowers and ovaries. By the way, useful bees can also be indirectly guilty, because along with the pollen, they also capture harmful disputes. Therefore, timely treatment with insecticides is also very important. Monilial burn of fruit trees is considered one of the most damaging diseases. It should be remembered that treatment with folk methods is useless, so you do not need to spend time and energy on it. Modern agrotechnologies have stepped far ahead, and for sure in modern stores dacha find the necessary drugs.
Choose a variety
Even at the time of purchase of the seedling, you must thinkabout which one will feel the best in your region. The stronger the tree, the easier it will survive the attack of the fungus and the healing pruning, and also will move into growth and restore the previous yield. Of course, it is very convenient to plant plants that are completely resistant to such formidable diseases as monilial burn of cherries. Treatment involves the use of special drugs, which can then accumulate in the fruit. I would very much like to avoid this.
Breeders have not been able to bring out varieties,who would not be at all prone to a dangerous illness. It's a pity, of course, but do not be discouraged. There are varieties that are better than others coping with this scourge. As an example, you can bring Cherry Anadolsky and Tamaris, Belarusian varieties Zhivitsa and Rossoshanskaya black, as well as a number of unpretentious varieties for the Moscow region. This is Turgenevka and Molodezhnaya, Radonezh and Bystrinka.
With a competent approach, these trees can grow and bear fruit even in the area where there is a massive infection with a monilial burn. Thus the quantity of a crop will please from year to year.
It is much easier to stop a monilial burn.Treatment can be lengthy and rather complicated, so pay special attention at this time. A good preventive measure is the regular formation of the crown of fruit trees. Removing unnecessary branches, the growth of which leads to an excessive density of the crown, as well as the cutting of weak shoots reduce the risk of colonization of the crown by pests and fungi. Especially important are such pruning for old, weakening trees. Do not forget to cut off all plant remains from sick cherries.
Mechanical destruction of affected plants
Combating a monilial burn is a complexmeasures, which aims to completely rid the garden of the fungus and prevent its appearance in the future. If you do not want the garden to be completely destroyed, it is necessary to cut out all affected and dead parts of plants.
Usually the time for a full inspection comes immediatelyafter the fall of the fall. Sick and dry twigs are cut out, and wounds are covered with putty or paint. Cropped branches and dry debris must be burned. After that, experts recommend spraying trees with a 6% solution of ferrous sulfate. Do not be too lazy to whiten tree trunks and twigs with lime milk.
If you could not complete these activitiesin autumn, they are smoothly transferred to the spring. Do not forget that the work should be completed before the buds swelling. Cut off branches also need to be burned. Now we carefully follow the garden. After swelling of the kidneys, it is necessary to spray the trees with 1% Bordeaux fluid. After flowering, check the fruit trees again. If old withered branches are left or new ones are added, then it is necessary to repeat the pruning and carry out the second spraying with the Bordeaux liquid.
Use of fungicides
To date, there are many moderncompositions that are designed to treat fungal diseases. But it is very important to take into account the fact that parasites quickly adapt. Therefore, it is necessary to change the fungicides year after year, and also to repeat the treatment on a regular basis. Along with this, it is necessary to prevent the spread of insect pests. Most often it is recommended to use "Fundazol", "Topaz", "Acrobat", "Horus", "Strobi", "Falcon".
Complete felling of the garden
This radical solution sometimes comes to minda gardener who was tired of fighting the disease. In fact, this is the worst option. Of course, with the destruction of trees, a monilial burn will also be lost. The photos presented in the article will help you understand what this disease is. However, planting new trees, you will again fall into the risk zone. Cherry and plum, apricots and peaches should not be cut, but rejuvenated by trimming skeletal branches. In parallel, a number of preventive and therapeutic sprayings are carried out and a crown completely free of fungus is formed. In this case, you will not lose as much time as it takes to grow a new orchard.
Instead of concluding
A monilial burn is a formidable disease,which can leave you pretty quickly without harvest. Fungus spreads at lightning speed and is dangerous for most garden crops. But among the fruit trees the most affected are stone fruit crops. In Russia it is cherry and plum. However, the gardener is perfectly able to protect his planting. For this, it is necessary to form the crown of trees, regularly inspect them and conduct timely treatment with iron sulfate or fungicides.