Adjectives with the suffix -ist: examples, rule, spelling features
The vocabulary of the Russian language is constantlyreplenished. On a par with the noun, the adjectives are responsible for this process. A huge role in it is played by morphological word formation from different parts of speech: from the noun (angry, glassy, fox), from the verb (patient, talkative, deceitful), and from other adjectives (gray-beige, acid-salty).
In today's article, we'll look at the way adjectives are formed with the suffix -ist. The suffixing way of word formation is not only the most popular, but also the most effective.
Examples of adjectives with the suffix -ist:
hollow, hazy, granular, fluffy, shady, broad-shouldered, vociferous, silvery, intermittent, rolling, cocky, gelatinous, blond etc.
As you can see, in the suffix -ist, only the vowel "and" can be used: clayey. The suffix -est- for adjectives simply does not exist.
Values of words formed in this way
The described part of the word is considered very active. In the process of word-formation, adjectives with the suffix -ist and the ending -y / oh / oe / ye (depending on gender and number) are obtained. Educated new words get several meanings:
- Having similarity with something: silvery (similar to silver), velvety (similar to velvet), earthy (similar to the ground), iodide (similar to iodine), icy (similar to ice).
- Presence of something in large quantity / quality: shady (a lot of shadow), scented (strongly smelling), vociferous (loud voice).
- Prone to anything, having a certain characteristic: sadyrist (pugnacious, loving to argue with people), gusty (when we speak of the wind), thorny (difficult, requiring a lot of effort to overcome).
Suffixes are -ast-and-at-. Their practical role
Synonyms to -ist are other suffixes: -ast-and-at-. In some cases, the root words with the suffix -ist can be replaced by adjectives with -ast. For example, fleasy and flea. "Bloated" is used in modern speech much more often than flea, although it is a relatively new word. In the dictionaries of Dal, there is no such adjective, but there is its analogue of the same root.
Another example of such a substitution of the word withthe suffix -ist can be considered a pair - "flowery" and "colorful." In the seventies, fighters for pure Russian began to speak out sharply against the adjective "colorful." They did not understand the meaning of its use, because in the language there was another, more pleasant by ear word - "flowery". True, this may seem strange, but the adjective "colorful" is also quite new, and in the dictionary of Dal it is completely absent. The concept of "flowery", "flowery" had several meanings:
1. ... the fabric; fabric with patterns, bright colors;
2. ... a meadow with many flowers and butterflies;
3. ... the language; pompous, loud, with bright speech turns.
Now the word "flowery" sounds naturalonly in the meaning of "flowery meadow" and "flowery language." The phrase "flowery fabric" is no longer used so often, and most of the Russian-speaking people will say "colorful fabric" instead. Like it to someone, or not, but the suffix -ast eventually managed to oust the -ist.
Immutable letters and sounds before the suffix
Let's return to the first example: flea-flea. Here we can consider adjectives with the suffix -ist and the rule that is valid in this case. What kind of sounds (colloquial speech) and letters (written speech) should be used before the suffix?
Adjective "flea" can not be consideredcorrect. In such cases, we can not use [x] with this suffix when working with adjectives. Note that in nouns such use is correct - masochist. For adjectives, the sound changes from [x] to [w].
Also, examples of the right combinations are sounds (and letters):
- "b" - bumpy;
- "at" - precipitous;
- "d" - thoroughbred;
- "ж" - erysipelas;
- "z" - slimy;
- "m" - hilly;
- "n" - thorny;
- "R" - porous;
- "from" - fleshy;
- "t" - velvety;
- "h" - radiant;
- "w" - coarse.
Variable letters and sounds
The following sounds / letters that occur at the end of the nouns, when combined with the suffix alternate:
- "x" changes to "w" (as in the examples above): sweep - sweeping, fluff - fluffy, burdock - lopushy, moss - mossy;
- "g" goes to "g": ravine - ravine, cottage cheese - curdled, rapids - rapids, snow - snowy, roads - expensive, snags - stumpy, blizzards - winding.
The suffix -ist can stand after several vowels: "e" (serpentine), "about" (laminate), "y" (streamy). These vowels can not be combined with the suffixes -ast-and-at-, so this case can be considered unique. A soft sign can also be used before -ist. In this case, two adjectives are formed: flaccid and streamy.
An interesting point is the stress inmentioned above adjectives with the suffix -ist. It turns out that in them the stress can fall both on the root (bumpy, hooliganous), and on the suffix itself (loopy, muscular).
Let's consider each case more closely:
- The stress falls on the suffix in the event that in the derived noun it stood on the first syllable: velvet - velvety, voice - vociferous, a rock - stony.
- In case the original noun has an accent on the second syllable, then it is preserved in the same place and in the adjective: the swamp - marshy, the breed - thoroughbred, weather - stony.
There may be a slight deviation from the established rate of use of stress. In this case, a new rule can work and adjectives with the suffix -ist can have a double stress.
Examples are: adjective "muscular", formed from the noun "muscle" and "sugary", derived from the word "sugar." In the second example, a variant with an emphasis on the root is most common in everyday speech, but the case with a shock suffix is also acceptable.
The formation of qualitative adjectives
The suffix -ist can be appended to namesown, resulting in qualitative adjectives. We practically do not use them in modern conversational speech, however such a method does exist and is found on pages of literary texts.
Qualitative adjectives, educatedin a similar way, are part of the general paradigm of declining adjective names (endings -y and -y) and describe the quality inherent in one or another subject.
So, the adjectives "ivanovye" and "catherine", descended from "Ivan" and "Catherine", are signs of such a sign that is peculiar to subjects with these names:
Ekaterinistye shoes - shoes of a certain style and style, which usually wears Catherine, they remind of the owner of the given name, even if such shoes can be worn by other people.
To fix the traversed material,adjective with the suffix -ist from the nouns listed below. After completing the practical task, you can check with our answers, which we leave at the end of the article.
Gyrus, pore, fragment, shadow, tear, rock, raska, pile, branch, greens, clay, flint, fiber, hillock, stain, thorns, squall.
We hope that we helped you sort out the adjectives with the suffix -ist and the rules concerning them.
Responses to the assignment: tortuous, porous, jerky, shady, steep, rocky, rolling, piley, branchy, greensy, clayey, siliceous, fibrous, hummocky, spotted, thorny, squally.