Decembrists in Russia. Execution of the Decembrists. The place and date of execution of the Decembrists
For almost 200 years, the Decembrist uprisingattracts the attention of historians. Written a huge number of scientific articles and even dissertations on this topic. Why this interest? The thing is that historically the Decembrists in Russia were the first who dared to oppose the power of the tsar. It is interesting that the rebels themselves began to investigate this phenomenon, they analyzed the causes of the uprising on the Senate Square and its defeat. As a result of the Decembrists' execution, Russian society lost the very color of enlightened youth, because they were descendants of nobility families, glorious participants in the war of 1812. The uprising affected the fate of talented poets. Thus, A. Pushkin, because of his ties with members of secret societies, was sent into exile.
Who are the Decembrists?
Who are the Decembrists? Briefly, they can be characterized as follows: they are members of several political societies, fighting for the abolition of serfdom and the change of state power. In December 1825, they organized an uprising that was brutally suppressed.
5 people (leaders) were betrayed shameful for the officers of the execution. Decembrists-participants were exiled to Siberia, some were shot in the Peter and Paul Fortress.
Reasons for the uprising
Why did the Decembrists raise an uprising? There are several reasons for this. The main one, which all of them, as one, reproduced during the interrogations in the Peter and Paul Fortress - the spirit of free thinking, the belief in the strength of the Russian people, tired of oppression - all this was born after a brilliant victory over Napoleon. It is no coincidence that 115 people from among the Decembrists are participants of the Patriotic War of 1812. After all, during military campaigns, liberating the European countries, they never met the savagery of serfdom anywhere. This made them reconsider their attitude towards their country "slaves and gentlemen".
It was obvious that serfdom had become obsolete. Fighting side by side with the common people, communicating with him, the future Decembrists came to the conclusion that people deserve better fate than slavish existence. The peasants also hoped that after the war their situation would change for the better, because they shed blood for the sake of the fatherland. But, unfortunately, the emperor and the majority of noblemen firmly held on to serfs. That is why from 1814 to 1820, more than two hundred peasant uprisings broke out in the country. The apotheosis was a rebellion against Colonel Schwartz of the Semenovsky Guards Regiment in 1820. His cruelty to ordinary soldiers went beyond borders. Activists of the Decembrist movement, Sergei Muraviev-Apostol and Mikhail Bestuzhev-Ryumin, witnessed these events, as they served in this regiment.
It should also be noted that a certain spiritFreethinker instilled most of the participants of the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum: for example, his graduates were I.Pushchin, V.Kyukhelbeker, and freedom-loving poems of A.Pushkin were used as inspirational ideas.
Southern Society of the Decembrists
It should be understood that the movement of the Decembrists does notemerged from nowhere: it grew out of world revolutionary ideas. Pavel Pestel wrote that such thoughts go "from one end of Europe to Russia," including even such opposite in mentality, Turkey and England.
In 1821 a new organization arose,consisting of two Societies: the Northern (in St. Petersburg, headed by Nikita Muravyov) and the Southern (in Kiev, led by Pavel Pestel). Southern society had more reactionary views: for the purpose of establishing the republic, they offered to kill the king. The structure of the Southern Society was represented by three administrations: the first, along with P. Pestel, was headed by A. Yushnevsky, the second by S. Murav'ev-Apostol, the third by V. Davydov and S. Volkonsky.
Pavel Ivanovich Pestel
The leader of the Southern Society, Pavel Ivanovich Pestel,was born in 1793 in Moscow. He gets a brilliant education in Europe, and on his return to Russia begins his service in the Corps of Pages - particularly privileged among the nobles. The pages are personally familiar with all the members of the imperial family. Here, for the first time, the freedom-loving views of young Pestel appear. Having brilliantly graduated from the Corps, he continues to serve in the Lithuanian regiment in the rank of ensign of the Life Guards.
During the war of 1812 Pestel receivesthe heaviest wound. He is cured, returns to the service, bravely fights. By the end of the war, Pestel has many high awards, including a gold award weapon. After the Patriotic War, he transferred to the service in the Cavalry Regiment - at that time the most prestigious place of service.
While in St. Petersburg, Pestel learns about somesecret society (the Union of Salvation) and soon enters into it. The revolutionary life of Paul begins. In 1821, he headed the Southern Society - in this he was helped by a magnificent eloquence, a wonderful mind and a gift of persuasion. Due to these qualities, in due time he achieves the unity of views of the Southern and Northern societies.
The Constitution of Pestel
In 1923 the program of the Southern Society, compiled by Pavel Pestel, was adopted. It was unanimously adopted by all the members of the association - the future Decembrists. In brief, it contained the following items:
- Russia should become a republic, one and indivisible, consisting of 10 districts. Public administration will be carried out by the People's Assembly (Legislative) and the State Duma (executive).
- In addressing the issue of serfdom Pestelsuggested that it be abolished immediately, dividing the land into two parts: for the peasants and for the landlords. It was assumed that the latter would lease it for farming. Researchers believe that if the reform of 1861 to abolish serfdom went according to Pestel's plan, then the country would very soon embark on a bourgeois, economically progressive path of development.
- Abolition of the institution of estates. All the people of the country are called citizens, they are equally equal before the law. Personal freedoms and inviolability of the person and home were announced.
- Tsarism was categorically rejected by Pestel, so he demanded the physical destruction of the entire royal family.
It was assumed that "Russian Truth" will come into force as soon as the uprising is over. It will be the basic law of the country.
The Northern Society of the Decembrists
Northern society begins to exist in 1821year, in the spring. Initially, it consisted of two groups, which later merged. It should be noted that the first group was more radical, its participants shared Pestel's views and fully accepted his "Russian Truth".
The activists of the Northern Society were Nikita Muraviev (leader), Kondraty Ryleev (deputy), princes Obolensky and Trubetskoi. Ivan Pushchin played not the last role in the Society.
The Northern Society operated mainly in St. Petersburg, but it also had a branch in Moscow.
The way of unification of the Northern and Southern societies waslong and very painful. They had cardinal differences on some issues. However, at the congress in 1824 it was decided to begin the process of unification in 1826. The uprising in December 1825 destroyed these plans.
Nikita Mikhaylovich Muravyov
Nikita Mikhaylovich Muravyov - comes fromnoble family. He was born in 1795 in St. Petersburg. I got a wonderful education in Moscow. The war of 1812 caught him in the rank of collegiate registrar at the Ministry of Justice. In the war he escapes from the house, makes a brilliant career during the battles.
After the Patriotic War begins to work in thethe composition of secret societies: the Union of Salvation and the Union of Welfare. In addition, he writes a charter for the latter. He believes that a republican form of government must be established in the country, only a military coup can help it. During a trip to the south he meets P. Pestel. Nevertheless, it organizes its own structure - the Northern Society, but it does not tear connections with like-minded people, but, on the contrary, actively cooperates.
The first version of his version of the Constitution writesin 1821, but she did not find any response from other members of the Societies. A little later, he will reconsider his views and release a new program proposed by the Northern Society.
The Muravyov Constitution
The Constitution of N. Muraviev included the following positions:
- Russia must become a constitutional monarchy: legislative power - the Supreme Duma, consisting of two chambers; executive - the emperor (in combination - the supreme commander-in-chief). Separately stipulated that he did not have the right to start and end the war on his own. Maximum after three readings the emperor had to sign the law. He had no right to impose a veto, he could only postpone the signing in time.
- With the abolition of serfdom, the land of the landlords is left to the owners, and the peasants - their plots, plus add two tithes to each house.
- The suffrage is only for the owners of the land. Women, nomads and non-proprietors were removed from it.
- Abolish the institution of estates, level all with one name: citizen. The judicial system is one for all.
Muravyov was aware that his version of the constitution would be met with fierce resistance, and therefore foresaw its introduction with the use of weapons.
Preparing for an uprising
The secret societies described above lasted 10 years, after which the insurrection began. It should be said that the decision about the mutiny arose spontaneously.
While in Taganrog, Alexander I. dies. In the absence of heirs, the next emperor was to become Constantine, brother of Alexander. The problem was that in his time he secretly renounced the throne. Accordingly, the board passed to the youngest brother, Nicholas. The people were in turmoil, not knowing about renunciation. However, Nicholas decides December 14, 1925 to take the oath.
The death of Alexander was the starting point forthe rebels. They understand that it is time to act, despite the fundamental disagreements between the Southern and Northern societies. They were perfectly aware that they had little time to prepare for the uprising, but they believed that it was criminal to miss such a moment. This is how Ivan Pushchin wrote to his Lyceum friend Alexander Pushkin.
Gathering on the night before December 14, the rebels prepare an action plan. It boiled down to the following points:
- Assign the commander of Prince Trubetskoi.
- Occupy the Winter Palace and the Peter and Paul Fortress. Responsible for this were A. Yakubovich and A. Bulatov.
- P. Nicholas had to be killed by Lieutenant P. Kakhovsky. This action was to be a signal to action for the rebels.
- Conduct agitation work among soldiers and persuade them to side with the rebels.
- To convince the Senate to swear allegiance to the emperor was entrusted to Kondratiya Ryleeva and Ivan Puschina.
Unfortunately, not all thought up the future Decembrists. History says that traitors from their midst were made a denunciation of the upcoming rebellion of Nicholas, which finally convinced him to appoint the Senate to the oath on the early morning of December 14.
Revolt: how it passed
The uprising did not follow the scenario that the rebels planned. The Senate manages to swear allegiance to the emperor before the agitation.
However, the regiments of soldiers are arrayed in battle order on the Senate Square, everyone is waiting for decisive actions on the part of the leadership.
Ivan Puschin and Kondraty Ryleyev arrive there andassure the soon arrival of the command, Prince Trubetskoi. The latter, having changed the insurgents, stayed in the Tsarist General Staff. He was unable to carry out those decisive actions that were required of him.
As a result, the uprising was suppressed.
Arrests and court
In St. Petersburg, the first arrests began andexecutions of the Decembrists. An interesting fact is that the court over the arrested was not involved in the Senate, as was supposed, but specifically sanctioned by Nicholas I for this case by the Supreme Court. The very first, even before the uprising, on December 13, was arrested Pavel Pestel.
Maiboroda wrote a denunciation and N. Muraviev, who was arrested in his own estate.
Under investigation, there were 579 people. 120 of them were exiled to hard labor in Siberia (including Nikita Muravyov), all were disgraced in military ranks. Five rebels were sentenced to death.
Turning to the court about a possible way to execute the Decembrists, Nikolai notes that blood should not spill. Thus, they, the heroes of the Patriotic War, sentenced to a shameful gallows.
Who were the executed Decembrists? Their names are the following: Pavel Pestel, Peter Kakhovsky, Kondraty Ryleev, Sergei Muraviev-Apostol, Mikhail Bestuzhev-Ryumin. The verdict was read on July 12, and they were hanged on July 25, 1926. The place of execution of the Decembrists was equipped for a long time: a gallows was built with a special mechanism. However, it was not without overlap: three people fell off their hinges, they had to be hung up repeatedly.
Place in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where they executedThe Decembrists - its kronverk. There is a monument, which is an obelisk and a granite composition. It symbolizes the courage with which the executed Decembrists fought for their ideals.