The Third July Revolution of 1907
The beginning of the twentieth century was sufficient for Russiaa difficult period. Bourgeois and socialist revolutions, which led to a split in society, and frequent changes in the political course, gradually weakened the empire. The subsequent events that occurred in the country were not an exception.
Early dissolution of the Second State Duma,held in Russia on June 3, 1907, which was accompanied by a change in the electoral system that existed up to that time, went down in history as the Third June Revolution.
Causes of dissolution
The reason for the early termination of powers IIThe Duma became the impossibility of rational and fruitful interaction in the work of the government, headed by Prime Minister Stolypin, and the state self-government body, which at that time consisted mainly of representatives of leftist parties such as Socialist-Revolutionaries, Social Democrats, People's Socialists . In addition, they were joined by the Trudoviks.
The Second Duma, which opened in February 1907., had the same opposition sentiments as the first Duma, which had been dissolved earlier. Most of its members were inclined not to accept virtually all proposed by the government bills, including the budget. Conversely, all the provisions put forward by the Duma could not be accepted by the State Council or the emperor.
Thus, there was a situation that representeda constitutional crisis. It consisted in the fact that the laws allowed the emperor to dissolve the Duma at any time. But at the same time he had to collect a new one, because without his approval he could not make any changes to the electoral law. At the same time, there was no certainty that the next convocation would not be as oppositional as the previous one.
Stolypin found a way out of the situation. He and his government decided to simultaneously dissolve the Duma and make the necessary changes in their electoral law, from their point of view.
The reason for this was the visit of deputiesSocial Democratic Party by a whole delegation of soldiers from one of the garrisons of St. Petersburg, who gave them the so-called soldier's order. Such an insignificant event Stolypin was able to present as a blatant episode of conspiracy against the existing state system. On June 1, 1907, he announced this at a regular meeting of the Duma. He demanded that a decision be made to remove 55 deputies from the Social Democratic faction, and also to remove immunity from some of them.
The Duma could not give an immediate response to the tsaristgovernment and organized a special commission, whose decision was to be made on July 4. But, not waiting for the report, Nicholas II, two days after the speech, Stolypin dissolved the Duma with his decree. In addition, an updated electoral law was promulgated and next elections were appointed. The Third Duma was to begin its work on November 1, 1907. Thus, the second convocation lasted only 103 days and ended with a dissolution that went down in history as the Third June coup d'état.
The last day of the First Russian Revolution
Dissolution of the Duma is the right of the emperor. But at the same time, the change in the electoral law itself was a gross violation of Article 87 of the Compendium of Basic State Laws. It said that only with the consent of the State Council and the Duma can any amendment be made to this document. That is why the events that took place on June 3, were called the Third June 1907 coup.
Dissolution of the second Duma took place for a while,when noticeably weakened the strike movement and the agrarian disturbances practically ceased. As a result, a relative calm was established in the empire. Therefore, the Third June (1907) coup d'etat is also called the last day of the First Russian Revolution.
How was the electoral law transformed? According to the new version, the changes were made directly to the electorate. This meant that the circle of the electorate itself was largely narrowed. And members of society, occupying a higher property position, that is, landowners and townspeople with a good income, received the majority of seats in the parliament.
The Third June coup d'étatsignificantly accelerated the elections to the new Third Duma, which took place in the autumn of the same year. They passed in an atmosphere of terror and unprecedented revelry of reaction. The majority of the Social Democrats were arrested.
As a result, the Third June coup led tothe fact that the Third Duma turned out to be composed of pro-government factions - nationalist and Octobrist, and representatives from the leftist parties were very few.
It should be noted that the total number of polling placespreserved, but the peasant representation decreased by half. Also, the number of deputies from various national suburbs has significantly decreased. Some regions were completely deprived of representation.
In the Cadet-liberal circles, the Third Junethe coup was briefly described as "shameless," because in a rather rude and frank manner he provided a monarchist-nationalist majority in the new Duma. Thus, the tsarist government shamelessly violated the main provision of the manifesto adopted in October 1905, that no law can be approved without preliminary discussion and approval in the Duma.
Ironically, the Third June revolution in the countryperceived calmly. Many politicians were surprised at such indifference on the part of the people. There were no demonstrations, no strikes. Even the newspapers commented on this event in a rather calm tone. The revolutionary activity and terrorist acts that were observed before this time, went into decline.
The Third June revolution was of great importance. The new convocation immediately began a fruitful legislative work, perfectly in contact with the government. But on the other hand, the significant changes to which the electoral law was subjected, destroyed the people's notions that the Duma is on guard for its interests.