Hypertension 1 degree: symptoms and treatment. Prevention
Increased pressure is the most frequent complaint, withwho are referred to a doctor. All the blame for constant stress, inadequate nutrition, lack of rest, addictions. Hypertension of the 1 st degree is the initial stage of a fairly serious disease. If timely measures are taken to treat it, the likelihood of a favorable prognosis is high enough.
What is hypertension?
Hypertensive disease is commonpathology of the cardiac system, in which there is a rapid increase in blood pressure (BP). At a rate of 120/80 mm Hg. Art. in patients with this diagnosis, this figure can reach 180/120 mm Hg. Art. and higher. These figures directly characterize the work of the heart.
In a healthy person, the main muscle of the body andThe circulatory system functions in the optimal mode. Hypertension develops against the background of a violation of the rate of blood flow through the vessels. Such pathological process arises as a result of gradual narrowing of their lumen. The heart at the same time tries to restore the normal functioning of the body and begins to work more intensively, performing the function of a kind of pump that drives blood all over the body.
As the load on this organ increases,various pathologies. The heart increases in size, which causes the occurrence of heart attacks and strokes. As a result of circulatory disorders, there are disruptions in the work of the brain, kidneys and other organs. The state of health of the person essentially worsens, its motor activity decreases.
Three degrees of illness
- Hypertension 1 degree. Symptoms and treatment of the disease should not be ignored, despite the mild form of pathology. This form is characterized by a sudden change in pressure.
- Hypertension of the 2nd degree. The arterial pressure is kept within 179/109 mm Hg. Art. Up to the standard values, this indicator is omitted very rarely.
- Hypertension of the third degree. The arterial pressure is above the 180/110 mm Hg mark. Art. The absence of medication can lead to serious complications.
Hypertension 1 degree: symptoms and treatment
The disease is characterized by a slow course. Hypertension of the first degree can not be confused with a one-time increase in blood pressure during exercise or under stressful situations. In such cases, the human body needs a temporary increase in pressure for a more intensive blood supply to the internal organs. Speaking about the initial stage of this disease, doctors note its instability. However, this is precisely what indicates the pathological process taking place in the body.
When diagnosing a disease, the patient is forced toconstantly monitor blood pressure parameters. The intensity of the symptoms of pathology will increase as the disease progresses. That is why it is important to start therapy in time and prevent the development of health-related complications.
How to treat hypertension 1 degree? Therapy with this disease is usually complex. It is aimed at eliminating the main causes of hypertension: the rejection of addictions, weight loss, rational nutrition. Thanks to this approach, you can quickly overcome the ailment. In the absence of positive dynamics, the patient is prescribed medication.
Depending on the degree of involvement in the pathological process of the so-called target organs, the following stages of the development of hypertension of the 1st degree are distinguished:
- The first stage is characterized by the absencedamage to internal organs. Hypertension 1 stage 1 degree is not distinguished by pronounced symptoms, therefore the disease is diagnosed extremely rarely.
- The second stage is characterized by involvement in the pathological process of one or more organs. Usually it is the kidneys, heart or brain.
- At the third stage, the emergence of various syndromes (renal failure, dyscirculatory encephalopathy).
In Russia, the diagnosis of "grade 1 hypertension" isevery third. This disease is typical for residents of developed countries. Moreover, it is rapidly growing younger, and today such a disappointing diagnosis can be found even among boys and girls. The main danger of this disease is that high blood pressure can lead to death.
Causes of pathology
Hypertension 1 degree develops in the backgroundReducing the lumen of the walls of blood vessels, which affects their patency. As a result, the cardiac system is forced to intensify its work in order to provide a full blood flow.
Experts identify a large numberprerequisites for the onset of the disease. Often to find one specific reason is not possible. They affect the body in the aggregate. Some factors are difficult to remove from everyday life, others are innate and remain with the person forever.
Arterial hypertension 1 degree occurs for the following reasons:
- Age (over 50 years).
- Pernicious habits.
- Frequent stress.
- Inefficient nutrition, hypoactivity, lack of proper rest.
- Pathology of the endocrine nature, including diabetes.
- High cholesterol.
Hereditary predisposition to the appearance ofHypertension is noted in about half of patients who seek help from a doctor. The risk of developing the disease increases significantly with mutations in the genes, which are directly responsible for the synthesis of proteins of sodium channels, angiotensin and renin.
Manifestation of hypertension of the 1 st degree
Disease in the initial stages often occursis asymptomatic. This explains the large percentage of late applications for qualified care, when secondary damage to the main organ systems is observed.
How to understand that you have hypertension 1 degree? Symptoms of pathology are determined depending on the involvement of the so-called target organs in the pathological process:
- Violation of patency in the vessels of the brain leads to the onset of headaches, confusion of consciousness.
- With heart failure, tachycardia, dyspnea and increased swelling are observed.
- Renal failure manifests itself in the form of fluid retention in the body, changes in color and the amount of urine.
The absence of symptoms is usually expressed externallyabsolutely healthy form of man. However, such visibility may disappear at any time. Due to stressful situations, the person sharply increases the pressure, worsens overall health. Doctors recommend conducting a constant monitoring of blood pressure in the absence of an obvious clinical picture.
Analyzing the course of the disease and provoking the risk, physicians plan the likelihood of complications for the patient with a diagnosis of "grade 1 arterial hypertension":
- Risk 1 indicates that duringThe first few years after the onset of symptoms of the disease, the probability of developing negative consequences is 15%. If the disease is under control, and the patient follows all the prescriptions of the doctor, hypertension may not develop into another stage.
- Risk 2 says that the prognosis of complications is at the level of 15 to 20%. In this case, active treatment with the use of medications is required, frequent visits to the doctor.
- Risk 3 characterizes the predicted probability of complications in 30% of cases.
- Risk 4 shows that the forecast is extremely unfavorable.
The risk percentage is usually determined not only byindicators of blood pressure, but also the state of the heart, the presence of concomitant pathologies of chronic nature. In addition, doctors pay attention to hereditary predisposition and disorders at the hormonal level.
When should I see a doctor?
Hypertension 1 degree, the symptoms of which are listed above, should not be left without attention. When the first signs of the disease appear, you should seek qualified help.
All patients who are in the high-risk grouprisk of developing this disease, should undergo an annual full diagnostic examination. Only in this way it is possible to identify the disease at the initial stage and take the necessary measures to eliminate it.
To identify signs of hypertension, doctorsuse the following methods of instrumental examination: measurement of blood pressure, ECHO-cardiography, kidney and heart ultrasound, brain MRI, blood tests. If these tests are sufficient to confirm the initial diagnosis and determine its degree, at this stage the patient's examination is completed and appropriate therapy is prescribed.
Neglect of health is sometimes lamentableends for patients who have been diagnosed with hypertension 1 degree. Disability, problems with the functioning of the cardiac system are just some of the complications that this ailment can lead to later.
How to treat hypertension?
The main goal of treatment of hypertension isreduction in the risk of heart complications. A slight increase in blood pressure and the possibility of its spontaneous reduction at the initial stages of the disease indicate the reversibility of organic and functional complications. Therefore, when diagnosing an illness, doctors recommend non-drug therapy first.
First and foremost, doctors advise to abandonall harmful habits (alcohol, smoking). Penetration of nicotine into the body helps reduce the lumen of blood vessels, which leads to increased blood pressure and the formation of blood clots. Nicotine addiction is the main reason why hypertension of the 1st degree arises.
Symptoms and treatment of the disease is enoughA complex issue whose solution can not be imagined without a reduction in body weight. Obesity in women is considered the leading risk factor for the disease. Correct and balanced nutrition will forever forget about this problem.
Another important step towards recoveryit is considered a reduction in the amount of stress in everyday life. It is certainly impossible to completely avoid experiencing. However, doctors advise to relax more often, learn to control their lives. For these purposes sessions of meditation and yoga, various trainings perfectly suit.
If the above recommendations do not help, you have to resort to the help of drug treatment. It can be combined with non-traditional therapies (massage, herbs).
Treatment of hypertension with medicines
To combat this disease, appointpsychotropic drugs that have a calming and antidepressant effect. These include tranquilizers ("Diazepam", "Trioxazine"), as well as antidepressants ("Amitriptyline"). In addition, medications that have a positive effect on the sympathetic-adrenal system ("Guangfaxin", "Pirilen", "Reserpine") are used for treatment.
Diuretics for hypertension 1 degreeare an important component of therapy. They remove salts and water from the body. Some patients are prescribed peripheral vasodilators that improve the functioning of the smooth muscle structure of blood vessels ("Apressin", "Vazonit").
All medicines for hypertension of 1 degree are appointed individually. Dosage is calculated taking into account the patient's condition and the presence of accompanying health problems.
Diet is an important part of therapy
An integral stage in the treatment of this diseaseis a nutritional adjustment with a limited intake of salt, liquid and animal fats. The latter can lead to atherosclerotic changes in the vessels, so they are replaced by vegetable crops and dietary meat / fish. The amount of salt consumed is also important to reduce to 3 g per day or to exclude altogether.
The diet for hypertension 1 degree has several goals at the same time: reducing cholesterol in the bloodstream, reducing blood levels and preventing the delay of excess fluid in the body.
From the diet doctors are recommended to completely excludefatty meat, alcohol, sweets and pastries, pickles and pickled dishes. What can you eat? It is allowed to use any vegetables and fruits, cereals, low-fat dairy products, lean meat.
It is desirable to eat foods in stew or boiledform. Recommended 5-6 meals a day in small portions. Correctly selected diet ensures the intake of necessary substances and vitamins for its normal functioning, which has a positive effect on blood pressure.
Treatment with folk remedies
Hypertension 1 degree with timely treatmentpractically does not carry a threat. Since ancient times, people's means have been used to combat high blood pressure. Healers recommend sedative herbs that have a calming effect. These include hawthorn, chamomile, lemon balm.
Treatment with non-conservative methods can prevent further development of the disease. A huge number of recipes, used by our grandmothers, are used in practice today.
- Mix 0.5 glasses of lemon and beet juice,add as much lime honey. All ingredients must be mixed thoroughly. The resulting medicine is recommended to take a third of the glass after eating.
- To two glasses of a cranberry it is necessary to add 2 spoons of a powdered sugar and accurately to grind. Such a medicine should be eaten one time before eating.
Before using the recipes of our grandmothers for the treatment of hypertension, it is necessary to consult with your doctor.
The best option for preventing hypertensionis considered a healthy lifestyle (balanced nutrition, the absence of addictions, full rest). An important role in the prevention of this disease is played by physical activity, in fact, hypodynamia often leads to its development. The best sports are cycling, walking, swimming.
If it is difficult to immediately move to intensive classes, you can start with a short walk. Initially, you can give up public and private transport, go to work on foot.
It is important to have a periodic examination of allthe body, take blood tests for sugar and cholesterol, follow the work of the heart. Such preventive measures allow at an early stage to identify the disease and prevent its further progression.
Hypertension 1 degree (symptoms and treatment describedin the materials of this article) occurs in people of all ages and social classes. The danger of this ailment lies in the fact that often it proceeds in a latent form, that is, asymptomatically. Patients seek help from a doctor only if serious complications occur. If the treatment course starts on time, the prognosis is favorable in most cases.